Das Urartäische Reich auch kurz Urarṭu, (urartäisch Biainili, assyrischKURArtaya KURURI akkadisch KURUraštu, biblisch vermutlich Ararat) war ein. Das Urartäische Reich auch kurz Urarṭu, war ein altorientalisches Reich um den Vansee in Kleinasien, das sich später bis in das Urmia- und Sewanbecken sowie die Arax-Ebene ausbreitete. Urartu (9. Jh. bis 7. Jh. v. Chr.) Sprachcodes. ISO xur. Kaukasus (und Urartu). Ġambašije, I. Georgien - Schätze aus dem Land des goldenen Vlies, Katalog Bochum (Bochum); Giemsch, L. / Hansen, S. (Hrsg.). is devoted to archaeological and historical research in the area of the ancient near-eastern kingdom of "Biainili", better known by the Assyrian name "Urartu".
Urartu: Das Reich am Ararat | Wartke, Ralf B | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. BIAINILI-URARTU (Acta Iranica, Band 51) | Gruber, C., Hellwag, U., Kroll, S. | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und. is devoted to archaeological and historical research in the area of the ancient near-eastern kingdom of "Biainili", better known by the Assyrian name "Urartu". Leider sind die meisten bekannten urartäischen Gräber ausgeraubt und die Beigaben gelangten in den Kunsthandel. Das Suffix -bi tritt nur beim transitiven Verb und nur in einer bestimmten Konstellation auf, für die Details siehe den Abschnitt über die Verbalmorphologie. Die urartäische materielle Kultur ist sehr gleichartig und zeigt in den Click to see more des urartäischen Reiches wenig Veränderung. Neben Königssiegeln sind auch Prinzensiegel bekannt. Die Markierung des direkten Objekts kann fehlen oder folgt jedenfalls nicht mehr dem Muster des Indikativs. Die meisten urartäischen Nomina enden auf -i ; aus diesem Grund ist das suffigierte GenuГџmomente der 3. Piotrovsky interpretiert die Gürtel als Teil der Rüstung urartäischer Bogenschützen. Die Rolle dieser Prinzen in der Verwaltung des Reiches ist unklar. Ihre Funktion entsprach vermutlich der der späteren Karawansereiensie boten sicheres Nachtquartier und beherbergten vielleicht eine kleine Schutztruppe. Onvista Bank Sparplan Etf Singular oft Tippster zu erkennen, Bsp. Sie entwickelten sich unter dem Einfluss der assyrischen und hethitischen Fortifikationstechnik. Seine Kopien stellten aber für längere Zeit die Grundlage dar, auf welcher europäische Forscher versuchten, Schrift GenuГџmomente Sprache zu verstehen. Urartäische Lehnwörter in anderen Sprachen sind selten. Salmanassar I. Möbel in den Festungen waren oft aufwendig gestaltet. Lang, The peoples of the hills, ancient Ararat and Caucauss. Zburzenie Musasira przez Sargona II w roku p. There is a number Urartu remains of sturdy stone article source, as well as some mud brickespecially when it has been burnt, which helps survival. While the Urartians incorporated many deities into their visit web page, they appeared article source be selective in their choices. Entrenched in a…. Email address. Götze, Churriter und Assyrer. Papers presented at a GenuГџmomente hosted by the Univ. At its height, the Urartu kingdom stretched north beyond the Aras and Lake Sevan, encompassing present-day Armenia and even the southern part of present-day Georgia almost to the shores of the Black Sea; west this web page the sources of the Euphrates ; east to present-day TabrizLake Urmiaand beyond; and south to the sources of the Tigris.
On this expedition, Belck reached the Kelishin stele, but he was attacked by Kurds and barely escaped with his life.
Belck and Lehmann-Haupt reached the stele again in a second attempt, but were again prevented from copying the inscription by weather conditions.
Their surviving documents were published by Manfred Korfmann in A new phase of excavations began after the war.
Excavations were at first restricted to Soviet Armenia. The fortress of Karmir Blur, dating from the reign of Rusa II, was excavated by a team headed by Boris Piotrovsky, and for the first time the excavators of a Urartian site published their findings systematically.
Beginning in Charles A. In the late s, Urartian sites in northwest Iran were excavated. In , an Italian team led by Mirjo Salvini finally reached the Kelishin stele, accompanied by a heavy military escort.
The Gulf War then closed these sites to archaeological research. In spite of excavations, only a third to a half of the known Urartian sites in Turkey, Iran, Iraq, and Armenia have been examined by archaeologists Wartke Without protection, many sites have been plundered by local residents searching for treasure and other saleable antiquities.
The discovery of Urartu has also come to play a significant role in 19th to 21st-century Armenian nationalism. The economic structure of Urartu was similar to other states of the ancient world, especially Assyria.
The state was heavily dependent on agriculture , which required centralized irrigation. These works were managed by kings, but implemented by free inhabitants and possibly slave labour provided by prisoners.
Royal governors, influential people and, perhaps, free peoples had their own allotments. Individual territories within the state had to pay taxes the central government: grain, horses, bulls, etc.
In peacetime, Urartu probably led an active trade with Assyria, providing cattle, horses, iron and wine.
According to archaeological data, farming on the territory of Urartu developed from the Neolithic , even in the 3rd millennium BC.
In the Urartian age, agriculture was well developed and closely related to Assyrian methods on the selection of cultures and methods of processing.
Many regions of the Urartu state required artificial irrigation, which has successfully been organized by the rulers of Urartu in the heyday of the state.
In several regions remain ancient irrigation canals, constructed by Urartu, mainly during the Argishti I and Menua period, some of which are still used for irrigation.
There is a number of remains of sturdy stone architecture, as well as some mud brick , especially when it has been burnt, which helps survival.
Stone remains are mainly fortresses and walls, with temples and mausolea, and many rock-cut tombs. The style, which developed regional variations, shows a distinct character, partly because of the greater use of stone compared to neighbouring cultures.
The typical temple was square, with stones walls as thick as the open internal area but using mud brick for the higher part.
These were placed at the highest point of a citadel and from surviving depictions were high, perhaps with gabled roofs; their emphasis on verticality has been claimed as an influence of later Christian Armenian architecture.
The art of Urartu is especially notable for fine lost-wax bronze objects: weapons, figurines, vessels including grand cauldrons that were used for sacrifices, fittings for furniture, and helmets.
There are also remains of ivory and bone carvings, frescos , cylinder seals and of course pottery. In general their style is a somewhat less sophisticated blend of influences from neighbouring cultures.
Archaeology has produced relatively few examples of the jewellery in precious metals that the Assyrians boasted of carrying off in great quantities from Musasir in BC.
With the expansion of Urartian territory, many of the gods worshipped by conquered peoples were incorporated into the Urartian pantheon as a means of confirming the annexation of territories and promoting political stability.
Some main gods and goddesses of the Urartian pantheon include: . While the Urartians incorporated many deities into their pantheon, they appeared to be selective in their choices.
Although many Urartian kings made conquests in the North, such as the Lake Sevan region, many of those peoples' gods remain excluded.
This was most likely the case because Urartians considered the people in the north to be barbaric, and disliked their deities as much as they did them.
Good examples of incorporated deities however are the goddesses Bagvarti Bagmashtu and Selardi , both potentially of Armenian origins.
On Mheri-Dur Meher-Tur the "Gate of Mehr" , overlooking modern Van, an inscription lists a total of 79 deities, and what type of sacrificial offerings should be made to each; goats, sheep, cattle, and other animals served as the sacrificial offerings.
Urartians did not practice human sacrifice. Theispas was a version of the Hurrian god, Teshub. Urartologist Paul Zimansky speculated that the Urartians or at least the ruling family may have emigrated northwest into the Lake Van region from their religious capital Musasir Ardini.
The written language that the kingdom's political elite used is retroactively referred to as Urartian , which is attested in numerous cuneiform inscriptions throughout Armenia and eastern Turkey.
It is unknown what language was spoken by the peoples of Urartu at the time of the existence of the Kingdom of Van, but there is evidence of linguistic contact between the proto-Armenian language and the Urartian language at an early date sometime between the 3rd—2nd millennium BC , occurring prior to the formation of the kingdom.
The latter term is considered problematic, however, as it is now thought that Urartian and Hurrian share a common ancestor rather than the previously held belief that Urartian developed directly from, or was a dialect of, Hurrian.
In short, the more we discover or deduce about the earliest stages of Hurrian, the more it looks like Urartian Gragg The Urartian language is an ergative - agglutinative language , which belongs to neither the Semitic nor the Indo-European language families , but to the Hurro-Urartian language family, which is not known to be related to any other language or language family, despite repeated attempts to find genetic links.
Examples of the Urartian language have survived in many inscriptions, written in the Assyrian cuneiform script, found throughout the area of the Kingdom of Urartu.
Although, the bulk of the cuneiform inscriptions within Urartu were written in the Urartian language, a minority of them were also written in Akkadian the official language of Assyria.
There are also claims of autochthonous Urartian hieroglyphs , but this remains uncertain. As a result, scholars disagree as to what language is used, or whether they even constitute writing at all.
The Urartians originally would have used these locally developed hieroglyphs, but later adapted the Assyrian cuneiform script for most purposes.
After the 8th century BC, the hieroglyphic script would have been restricted to religious and accounting purposes.
The Kingdom of Urartu, during its dominance, had united disparate tribes, each of which had its own culture and traditions.
Thus, when the political structure was destroyed, little remained that could be identified as one unified Urartian culture.
Far from being grounded on long standing cultural uniformities, [Urartu] was merely a superstructure of authority, below which there was plenty of room for the groups to manifest in the Anatolia of Xenophon to flourish.
We need not hypothesize massive influxes of new peoples, ethnic replacement, or any very great mechanisms of cultural change. The Armenians, Carduchoi , Chaldaioi , and Taochoi could easily have been there all along, accommodated and concealed within the structure of command established by the Urartian kings.
Ultimately, little is known of what was truly spoken in the geopolitical region until the creation of the Armenian alphabet in the 4th century AD.
The presence of a population who spoke Proto-Armenian in Urartu prior to its demise is subject to speculation, but the existence of Urartian words in the Armenian language and Armenian loanwords into Urartian  suggests early contact between the two languages and long periods of bilingualism.
However, recent genetic research suggests that the Armenian ethnogenesis was completed by BCE, making the arrival of an Armenian-speaking population as late as the Bronze Age Collapse unlikely.
This intermixing would ultimately culminate in the emergence of the Armenian language as the dominant language within the region. A theory, supported by the official historiography of Armenia and experts in Assyrian and Urartian studies such as Igor M.
Diakonoff, Giorgi Melikishvili , Mikhail Nikolsky, and Ivan Mestchaninov, suggests that Urartian was solely the formal written language of the state, while its inhabitants, including the royal family, spoke Proto-Armenian.
This theory primarily hinges on the fact that the Urartian language used in the cuneiform inscriptions were very repetitive and scant in vocabulary having as little as — roots.
Furthermore, over years of usage, it shows no development, which is taken to indicate that the language had ceased to be spoken before the time of the inscriptions or was used only for official purposes.
A complementary theory, suggested by Tamaz V. Gamkrelidze and Ivanov in , places the Proto-Indo-European homeland the location where Indo-European would have emerged from in the Armenian Highlands, which would entail the presence of proto-Armenians in the area during the entire lifetime of the Urartian state.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Iron Age kingdom located in a large region around Lake Van. Biainili .
Urartian Proto-Armenian . Name People Language. Stone and Copper Age Shulaveri-Shomu culture c. Achaemenid period Satrapy of Armina — BC.
Middle Ages. Arabic period Emirate of Armenia — Early modern age. Perso - Ottoman period Iranian Armenia — The structure of the Urartian state.
Zimansky, Ancient Ararat. A handbook of Urartian studies , s. Lenormant, Lettres assyriologiques , T. Barnett, Urartu , w: Edwards I.
Friedrich, Chaldische urartäische Texte , w: Kleinasiatische Sprachdenkmäler. Friedrich, Einführung ins Urartäische.
Wolski, Historia powszechna. The Cambridge ancient history , T. Eastern Anatolia , s. Götze, Churriter und Assyrer. Hauptlinien der vorderasiatischen Kulturentwicklung im II.
Jahrtausend v Chr Geb. Lehmann-Haupt, Armenien, einst und jetzt. The genesis of civilisation. Kramer, Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta.
A Sumerian epic tale of Iraq and Iran. Salvini, Geschichte und Kultur der Urartäer. Ebeling, B. Meissner, E.
The Euphrates became Urartu's western border; beyond that river, there were friendly contacts with Phrygia , another early state from the Iron Age.
However, Assyria recuperated and in BCE, the Armenian king Rusa was defeated by the Assyrian king Sargon, who marched almost unopposed through the country in the north and took possession of the statue of the Urartian supreme god Haldi.
The event is recorded in the Assyrian Eponym List. After this humiliation, Rusa refused to live and committed suicide.
Through Trapezus , there were trade contacts with Greece, which explains why lions in Greek art of this period resemble the lions made by the sculptors from Urartu.
After a century of development, the fertile country had become a natural target for the nomads who lived north of the Caucasus known to the Greeks as " Scythians ", Sacae, Sakesinai, Cimmerians , and so on.
Archaeologists have discovered that many Urartian fortresses e. Arrowheads from a type known from modern Ukraine suggest that the Scythians were responsible for the destruction, although there are alternative explanations.
The problem is that our Assyrian sources come to an end at precisely this moment: the Babylonians and Medes captured Nineveh in BCE. Having suffered from the Scythian invasion, the country could have been an easy target for the Babylonians, but they appear to have been not interested.
It is more likely that Urartu was subject to some kind of Median supremacy, because in BCE, a Median army fought a battle at the river Halys in central Turkey against the Lydian king Alyattes.Person Singular steht, oder -ni GenuГџmomente, wenn das Subjekt in der 3. Namensräume Artikel Diskussion. Nur wenige Formen sind bekannt. Neben Königssiegeln sind auch Prinzensiegel bekannt. Beim something Livestream Tour De France 2020 thank Verbum steht dagegen die Transitivitätsmarkierung -u- hinter dem Stamm, und folgende Endungen werden zur Kennzeichnung more info transitiven Subjekts Ergativ verwendet:. Nach assyrischen Quellen von click here. Rotpolierte Toprakkale-Keramik ist häufig. Die zahlreichen Bewässerungsanlagen versorgten entweder Sonderkulturen wie Obst- und Weingärten oder verbesserten das Weideland für Vieh, insbesondere Pferde.